16 seconds after detonation
This band extends out for almost 4 miles and has an overpressure of 1 psi. at its outside edge. At the inner edge there will be light to moderate amounts of damage to unreinforced buildings of brick and wood. Reinforced structures and commercial buildings will receive light damage at most. This band extends out to the site of the former World Trade Center and the Statue of Liberty in the south, across the East River into Queens in the east, and across the Hudson River to New Jersey.
Though this ring covers an additional 30 square miles, much of this area is over water or less densely populated areas. The affected population in this ring is estimated to be 500,000. There will be almost no fatalities in this ring and only a small percentage, roughly 30,000, will receive injuries from the thermal pulse. Flashblindness and permanent retinal injuries from the blast will extend out beyond 20 miles. Since this is a ground level explosion, the number of people who will be looking in the direction of the blast and have a clear view, will be much less than if the explosion had taken place several thousand feet above the city.